A new study in the journal Environmental Research shows children who were exposed to higher levels of traffic-related air pollution were more anxious.
Let's start with just a few adjectives about our daily lives - overexposed, overwhelmed, stimulated, toxic, deficient. It's not enough that many young people lack good nutrition, but they are also challenged by circumstance by a lack of clean air to breathe and pure water to drink.
Industry studies show evidence of bias and misleading conclusions on widely used insecticide: Scientists
Researchers who examined Dow Chemical Company-sponsored animal tests performed two decades ago on the insecticide chlorpyrifos found inaccuracies in what the company reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency compared to what the data showed.
Inaccuracies in the reporting<p>The researchers, led by Axel Mie, an assistant professor in the department of clinical science and education at the Karolinska Institute, requested the data for two industry lab animal studies—one from 1998, and one in 2015.</p><p>One study tested chlorpyrifos exposure on rats, while the other was a rat study of chlorpyrifos-methyl, a breakdown chemical from chlorpyrifos. </p><p>Key findings: </p><ul><li>The lab, Argus Research Laboratories in Pennsylvania, used a 2 percent cut off for what constitutes "statistically significant" findings throughout most of the study, instead of the scientific standard of 5 percent. This is important because it is a stricter interpretation of data and would make it more likely that they wouldn't find impacts from exposure. </li><li>When the lab looked at dimensions of the brain after exposure, they didn't look at individuals but put them all together and took an average. "When we looked at least one dimension in the rats, cerebellum height was decreased and linked to exposure to chlorpyrifos in newborn pups," Grandjean said. "In the other test study where they examined chlorpyrifos-methyl those data were in part missing, so we were unable to see if the same thing happened with the sister compound. And there was no explanation for the data being unavailable." </li><li>The rat studies failed to model human exposure and potential brain impacts. "The brain growth spurt occurs mainly postnatally in rats but prenatally in humans," Mie and colleague wrote. However, the newborn pups in the industry studies had decreased levels of exposure once born because only a fraction of chlorpyrifos is transferred via milk. </li><li>The test facility for the studies was "unable to detect neurobehavioral effects of elevated developmental exposure to lead nitrate, although lead is a confirmed developmental neurotoxicant at very low doses," the authors wrote. </li></ul><p>"We believe there were some inaccuracies in the reporting and in the summary provided by Dow to the EPA and EFSA," Grandjean said. "And this goes back something like 20 years, when all of this testing was being done, and this is what current approval of chlorpyrifos relies on." </p>
"Federal agencies need to stop doing negotiations with registrants"<p>Grandjean said there were several hundred pages of data.</p><p>In communication between EPA toxicologists and those responsible for registering pesticides, it's clear agency scientists were well aware of study interpretation problems. </p><p>"The study was graded unacceptable due to an inadequate presentation of the statistical data analysis," wrote Susan Makris, formerly with the toxicology branch of the EPA, <a href="https://archive.epa.gov/pesticides/chemicalsearch/chemical/foia/web/pdf/059101/059101-427-03-03-2000.pdf" target="_blank">in a 2000 note</a> to the agency's reregistration branch. </p><p>An EPA spokesperson said the agency is reviewing the new study. </p><p>"What happened in the end was EPA management overriding their own science and technical experts," Sass said. </p><p>Sass added that EPA scientists are now on the "right track" — looking at low dose exposures and specific impacts to developing children. </p><p>And now it's up to management and administration officials to follow the science. </p><p>"This [study] just shows that industry can't be trusted on how it reports data, and federal agencies need to stop doing negotiations with registrants," Sass said. </p><p>EHN has reached out to Dow Chemical Company and will update the story when they respond. </p>
Hunger ending technology powered completely by solar and wind energy has made its way to the Natural State.
Researchers find people's exposure to PFAS and certain flame retardants could be significantly reduced by opting for healthier building materials and furniture.
Fish exposed to harmful contaminants can pass on health issues such as reproductive problems to future generations that had no direct exposure.
An expanding wood pellet market in the Southeast has fallen short of climate and job goals—instead bringing air pollution, noise and reduced biodiversity in majority Black communities.